Is a Lack of Cultural Diversity in Healthcare Harming Our Patients? | Rasmussen College

 

cultural diversity in healthcare articles

Sep 25,  · For health care experts like Patricia Prelock, Ph.D., dean of the College of Nursing and Health Sciences at the University of Vermont, these changing demographics underscore the importance of cultural diversity in a profession where the patient . The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on unequal treatment concluded “racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare exist and, because they are associated with worse outcomes in many cases, are unacceptable.” 1 The IOM report defined disparities in health care as “racial or ethnic differences in the quality of health care that are not due Cited by: Diversity in Health Care is an open access, peer-reviewed, Scopus indexed journal that publishes articles on the multi-dimensional aspects of healthcare. Diversity & Equality in Health and Care [email protected] Submit a Manuscript.


Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Health Care


In spite of significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of most chronic diseases, there is evidence that racial and ethnic minorities tend to receive lower quality of care than nonminorities and that, patients of minority ethnicity experience greater morbidity and mortality from various chronic diseases than nonminorities.

Three studies published in this issue of the journal cultural diversity in healthcare articles new insight to the sources of and contributing factors to racial and ethnic disparities in health care. In the first study, Trivedi and Ayanian 2 conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 54, respondents to the California Health Interview Survey to assess cultural diversity in healthcare articles relationship between perceptions of health care discrimination and use of health services.

Those that reported discrimination were less likely to receive some preventive care services; however, adjusting for perceived discrimination did not eliminate the observed racial, cultural diversity in healthcare articles, gender, and insurance disparities in receipt of preventive care.

The second study by Huang et al. The factor structure of the PHQ-9 was consistent across ethnic groups although there was evidence of differential item functioning for some items.

The authors concluded that the PHQ-9 measures a common concept of depression and is an effective detection and monitoring tool for depression in diverse populations. The third study by Groeneveld et al.

Respondents answered questions about general innovativeness i. There were no significant racial differences in general innovativeness, but whites had higher medical innovativeness and were more likely to accept new prescription drugs than blacks. Although the findings of these studies are highly relevant, there are inherent limitations in most research studies on ethnic differences that need to be highlighted. There is good evidence that socioeconomic position is a stronger determinant of health-related outcomes than race.

The study of racial variations in health is driven by a genetic model that assumes that race is a valid biological category, that the genes that determine race are linked with the genes that determine health, and that the health of a population is determined predominantly by biological factors. Methods for collecting data on race include self-report, direct observation, proxy report, and extraction from cultural diversity in healthcare articles. In general, self-reported race is most reliable and should be the preferred method.

However, with the increase in the number of people that belong to multiple racial categories, it is increasingly difficult to classify individuals into 1 race category, which further complicates the interpretation of race effects in research studies. Ethnicity is another variable that is commonly used in studies on health disparities. The Office of Management and Budget OMB has defined minimum standards for maintaining, cultural diversity in healthcare articles, collecting, and presenting data on race and ethnicity.

The concept of ethnicity is an attempt to further differentiate racial groups; however, like race, it carries its own historical, political, and social baggage. In spite of these limitations, ethnicity when combined with race provides more information as long as researchers define their construction of it and justify its validity, reliability, and consistency. Acculturation is another concept related to culture that is typically used to explain ethnic disparities in health outcomes.

Acculturation as a predictive or explanatory variable is based on the assumption that culturally based knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs cause people to behave in certain ways and make specific health choices.

In spite of the major limitations of using race, ethnicity, or culture as predictive and explanatory variables in health research, there remains a dire need to conduct research on ethnic differences in health outcomes. Studies that infer that certain health behaviors or outcomes differ by race, ethnicity, culture, or degrees of acculturation may be misleading because they rarely account for the distinct differences within racial or ethnic groups or cultures.

For example, blacks that live in California may have very different cultural values from those that live in the Southeast so beliefs and perceptions about health care discrimination may be poles apart. Similarly, blacks from the Caribbean Islands or the continent of Africa who are classified as blacks for research purposes have distinct cultural values that are different from those of blacks who were born and raised in America.

Such obvious differences in beliefs, values, and practices are not accounted for with the current classification of race and ethnicity. It is crucial that limitations in the definitions, measurement, and classification of the concepts of race, ethnicity, and culture are recognized as inferences are drawn from studies on health disparities. Future studies on the relationship among race, ethnicity, culture, or acculturation and health outcomes need to go beyond just showing an association between these variables and health outcomes to providing a causal pathway for any such association.

The 3 studies published in this issue of the journal raise interesting points. Second, that lack of medical innovativeness may be a barrier to adoption of new technology in blacks and may cultural diversity in healthcare articles observed differences in utilization of innovative medical technologies.

As already discussed, results of these studies need to be interpreted with caution and put in the appropriate context of the conceptual limitations of the measurement and definition of race and ethnicity in the United States. Nevertheless, the results of these studies underscore the need to continue funding research on understanding racial and ethnic differences in health outcomes.

As the United States becomes more cultural diversity in healthcare articles, there will be increased need to establish the validity and reliability of constructs and instruments across racial, ethnic, and cultural groups.

Researchers need to continue to examine how ethnic differences in risk aversion and patient preferences influence medical decision making and health outcomes. In addition, perceived discrimination, racial bias, and stereotyping should remain legitimate research questions.

More studies are needed to determine whether these factors significantly contribute to health care disparities and identify strategies to minimize or eliminate their effects on health. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Gen Intern Med. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address correspondence and requests for reprints to Dr.

All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Acknowledgments Dr. Institute of Medicine. Williams DR. Int J Health Serv. Krieger N. Cooper R, David R. The biological concept of race and its application to public health and epidemiology. J Health Polit Policy Law. The concept of race in Health Services Research: to Health Serv Res. Office of Management and Budget. Oppenheimer GM. Paradigm lost: race, ethnicity, and the search for a new population taxonomy, cultural diversity in healthcare articles.

Am J Public Health. A critical review of research on U. Soc Sci Med. Pasick RJ. Socioeconomic and cultural factors in the development and use of theory. Washington, DC: U, cultural diversity in healthcare articles. Government Printing Office; Similarities and differences across cultures: questions to inform a third generation for health promotion research. Health Educ Q. Leininger MM. Transcultural care diversity and universality: a theory of nursing.

Nurs Health Care. Hunt LM. Health research: what's culture got to do with it. Dressler W. Health in the African American community: accounting for health inequalities. Med Anthropol Quart. Support Center Support Center, cultural diversity in healthcare articles. External link. Please review our privacy policy.

 

The new look of diversity in healthcare: Where we are and where we're headed

 

cultural diversity in healthcare articles

 

Diversity in Health Care is an open access, peer-reviewed, Scopus indexed journal that publishes articles on the multi-dimensional aspects of healthcare. Diversity & Equality in Health and Care [email protected] Submit a Manuscript. Mar 21,  · While cultural competency may seem like a nicety, diversity awareness can actually be lifesaving in a healthcare setting. Consider an example from the National Student Nurses’ Association in which a nurse caring for a diabetic patient disregards a patient’s spiritually-informed dietary restrictions. If the patient doesn’t eat the food, it can trigger a chain reaction leading to delayed eating and . The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on unequal treatment concluded “racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare exist and, because they are associated with worse outcomes in many cases, are unacceptable.” 1 The IOM report defined disparities in health care as “racial or ethnic differences in the quality of health care that are not due Cited by: